April 28th, 2015
for the purchase of a Spanish property can simplify and speed up the purchase
process; and minimise transaction costs.
The following is a
reminder of some of the principal ‘paperwork’ items to consider, when dealing
with a Spanish property purchase.
1. Appointment of
Legal Representative. In order to be
fully protected in any Spanish property transaction, it is essential to appoint
in writing, a legal representative, who is independent- both from the other
party to the transaction and also from the estate agent negotiating the
transaction. The appointed legal representative must be duly qualified,
registered with the applicable Colegio de Abogados (Law Society equivalent) and
up to date with their professional practice requirements. They must also carry
adequate professional indemnity insurance cover. It is also essential that all
communication is in a language which both the buyer and the legal
representative speak perfectly. There should be no risk of any misunderstanding
or ambiguity. Advice should be obtained also before signing a legally binding
contract, as to the structuring of the purchase, for estate planning purposes.
2. Survey. Even if not required for mortgage
purposes, a survey by an independent expert is recommended before any Spanish
property purchase- both to verify the condition of the property; but also to
ensure that the description of the property (in the Property Registry and Town
Hall/ rates department) is consistent with the position ‘on the ground’. This
avoids later problems. In many cases, there are inconsistencies, which require
3. Power of Attorney. If the buyer does not anticipate being
personally present in Spain for the legal / transactional process, then it will
be necessary for a Power of Attorney (containing the necessary legal powers) to
be signed in favour of the appointed representative/ legal adviser.
4. NIE Certificates. NIE (fiscal) numbers will be required
for any Spanish property buyer; and up to date NIE certificates will need to be
provided to the Notary on completion.
5. Bank Account. Any Spanish property buyer will require
a current bank account in Spain usually- to deal with the purchase funds; and
in any event, for payment of the property outgoings following completion. It is
advisable to be certain in advance, as to the charges which will be applied in
crediting monies to the account; and for making transfers from the account.
Spanish bank charges can be surprisingly high; and the manner of funding the
purchase price; and transfer/ Foreign Exchange issues, can significantly affect
6. Mortgage. If mortgage funding is required, the
process should be started as early as possible, as significant delays can
otherwise occur- as all aspects of the title to the property and its value as
security will be scrutinized by the bank’s advisers; and this can be a lengthy
process. Also in undertaking any loan in Spain, full clarity on costs must be
obtained- not only in servicing the loan, but also the initial/ set-up costs;
and any amounts payable to redeem the loan also.
7. Capital Gains Tax/
Accounting. From the very
outset of a purchase, attention should be paid to the collation of all financial
information and receipts- e.g. construction/ works invoices and other
accounting paperwork- principally to build up a solid record of possible future
deductions/ allowances for capital gains tax purposes, for the occasion of a
subsequent sale of the property.
8. Title Deeds. Following completion, the buyer should
receive an official copy of the Purchase Deed (‘escritura’). The Registered
Title details can usually be extracted from the Title Deed; as an up to date
copy of the Registered Title is usually appended to the rear of the escritura,
once the registered title is updated to reflect the sale and purchase of the
Permission. Proof of
compliance with planning legislation; and permission for the legal occupation
of the property will be required. Usually for any missing documentation,
official copies- or confirmation of legal compliance- can be obtained from the
planning (‘urbanismo’) department of the Town Hall.
10. Rates Information. The full rates details for the property
will be required, together with proof that there are no rates arrears.
Reference numbers can usually be found on the receipts for rates (IBI/ SUMA)
sent out by the local Town Hall (‘Ayuntamiento’) or the sellers’ paying bank.
Missing information can usually be obtained fairly easily from the rates
(‘Catastro’) department of the Town Hall. An apportionment of rates will need
to be made between the seller and the buyer on completion.
11. Community Details. Full details of the Community
Administrator will be required, together with a copy of the Community statutes
and (if possible) copies of the minutes of recent Community meetings. A summary
of Community charges over recent years will be needed; and also details of any
forthcoming charges, which have already been notified. The most recent
statement/ receipt of Community charges will be needed; and before signing the
sale and purchase deed (‘escritura de compraventa’) before the Notary, a
Certificate by the Community Administrator, confirming that there are no arrears
of Community charges will be required. An apportionment of Community charges
will need to be made between the seller and the buyer on completion.
Contracts. Receipts for the
most recent payments of property outgoings (principally electricity/ water; and
if applicable, gas) will be required on completion, together with the latest
contractual terms of supply- in the absence of copies, these can be obtained
from the local offices of the services supply companies. Following completion,
the services contracts will need to be transferred to the buyer- services
apparatus updating works may be required, so the advice of an independent
expert is recommended before a contractual commitment is made. An apportionment
of costs will need to be made between the seller and the buyer on completion.
13. Energy Performance
Certificate. The seller is
required to provide an energy performance certificate in relation to the
property on completion.
14. Wills. Every purchaser of a Spanish property
should ensure that they have an up to date validly executed and registered
Spanish Will, which accurately reflects their wishes for the succession of
their Spanish property interest in the event of their death.
Resident Tax Returns. Non-Spanish
resident owners of Spanish properties have to make an annual tax declaration in
Spain. Usually a fiscal adviser is appointed to deal with this, following
completion of the purchase.
The above is a
non-exhaustive checklist- really just the bare minimum.
The Legal 4 Spain team
provides a full property conveyancing service (buying and/or selling)
throughout Spain. We are always happy to provide a competitive cost estimate at
the outset of a transaction on a no-obligation basis.